For the forestry state area (66.0% of the total forest area), forest management or services are provided by the Romsilva National Forest Administration, while for the others forestry area (34.0%), forest management or services are provided by forest regimes districts.
By the end of 2015 there were 468 forest districts, of which 322 were under the structures of the Romsilva National Forest Administration, 146 forest regime districts, 3 forest districts under the structure of “Marin Drăcea” National Forest Research and Development Institute and 1 forest district under the Autonomous Administration – State Protocol Patrimony Administration.
In Romania, the main governmental institutions associated with forestry are Ministry of Waters and Forests, National Forest Administration – Romsilva, National Institute for Research and Development in Forestry “Marin Drăcea”, Regional Forest Guards, National Environment Guard, National Environmental Agency.
The National Forest Administration – Romsilva operates under the authority of the Ministry of Waters and Forests. The main purpose is to ensure sustainable and unitary management, in accordance with the provisions of the forestry and forestry rules, of the public property fund of the state in order to increase the contribution of the forests to the improvement of the environment conditions and to ensure the national economy with wood, forest products and specific forest services. It also deals with the coordination and implementation of the national horse breeding program, national and international promotion of valuable horses from the herds of the Romsilva National Forest Administration through the organization of sports competitions, fairs and exhibitions. At the same time, through the 22 parish administrations, units with legal personality, RNP-Romsilva administers 23 national and natural parks in which the state-owned forestry fund has a significant share, ensuring biodiversity conservation in these protected areas.
The non-governmental organizations are: Romanian Forest Association (ASFOR), Association of the Private Forest Administration (AAPP), Owners Association of the Private Forests, The Silvic Forest Society, Proforest Association, Professional Association of Forest Service Providers in Romania, Federation for the Protection of Forests.
The number of employees in forestry is about 41 300 employees. With regard to the dynamic variation in the number of employees in the forestry sector, there is a decrease in the number of employees from 1990 to 2010 (Tab. 3).
Table 3. Employment in forestry during the period 1990-2010
|Employment in forestry
The area and percentage of the forest ownership including private and state owned and public forest are presented in Figure 4.
Figure 4. National forest fund structure by type of ownership
Over the last decade, with the change of legislation, the type of forest ownership has been constantly changing (Tab. 4).
Table 4. The dynamics of the change of type of ownership in the forest fund
||Surface of the national forest fund
|Public of the state
|Public of the territorial administration
|Private of the territorial administration
|Private of private persons and legal persons
The main Forest – related policies and laws are:
- a) Law no. 46/2008 – The Forest Code is the main law governing the forestry regime in Romania, thus creating the legal, technical and economic framework necessary to ensure a sustainable management of the forests of the country. Elaborated in 2008 (latest version), the Forest Code has undergone numerous modifications aimed at improving the forestry regime (last modification in July 2017). It divides the forest area into: public property of the state and territorial administrative units and also private property of communities and of natural and legal persons (individuals, associations, schools, churches, etc.).
- b) Law no. 134/2017 regarding the establishment and sanctioning of forest contraventions – this law is aimed at completing the forest code, providing the contraventions to the forest management and administration, integrity of the forest fund, forest protection, forest regeneration and valuation of wood/non-wood products, as well as procedures for findings and sanctions.
- c) Law no. 100/2010 on the afforestation of degraded lands. The normative act details paragraph 53 of the Annex to the Forestry Code and refers to degraded land irrespective of the form of ownership, for its improvement by land-use works in order to protect the soil, restore hydrological equilibrium and improve environmental conditions.
- d) Law no. 289/2002 regarding the forest shelter belts. This low refers to the plantations with forest vegetation, with different lengths and relatively narrow sides, located in such order as to protect different objectives (e.g. cities, roads, agricultural crops) against the effects of some harmful factors like: soil erosion, snow blizzards, floods or pollution.
- e) Law no. 56/2010 regarding the accessibility of the national forestry fund. Accessibility is an important factor in the sustainable management of the national forests, and can be achieved either by road construction works or by investments on the existing roads, in order to maintain their functionality.
- f) Government Emergency Ordinance no. 59/2000 on the status of forestry personnel. This governmental act was approved with amendments and completions by Law no. 427/2001. According to the law, forestry personnel are those who have forestry training attested by the act of graduation of a recognized education institution in Romania and who actually practice forestry profession in the field of forestry.
- g) Emergency Ordinance of the Government no. 85/2006 on the establishment of ways of assessing the damages caused to forest vegetation in and out of forests. This governmental act was approved with amendments and completions by Law no. 84/2007. Under this law, damage means the modification of appearance, physical integrity and / or physiological characteristics of the tree / trees naturally regenerated or planted, resulting from different forms of degradation whether or not followed by their appropriation, under unlawful conditions.
- h) Governmental Decision no. 470/2014 for the approval of the Norms on the provenance, movement and trade of wood materials, the regime of wood storage facilities and round wood processing plants, laying down the obligations of operators who place timber and timber products on the market.
- i) Emergency Ordinance of the Government no. 32/2015 for setting up Forest Guards. Regulation aims at guarding the national forest fund against illegal occupation, illegal cutting of trees, theft, degradation of forests or any kind of land located in the forest, grazing, and against other damaging factors.
At the level of assumed policies, we find:
- j) Governmental Decision no. 617/2016 for the approval of the Regulation for the utilization of the wood from the public property forest fund.
Investigation and monitoring of forestry resources
Since 1990 Romania, is a member country of UN ECE ICP- Forests Program and forest monitoring activity was carried out at a large scale; the forest condition surveys were based on a permanent European grid system plots (level I) (16×16 km) and in 1992 on intensive plots was placed in representative forest ecosystems within a nonsystematic network (level II -12 permanent plots). Additionally, in Romania, long term socio-ecological research was developed in two LTSER sites (Retezat and Bucegi – Piatra Craiului).
During the 2010 – 2015 periods, health status of the Romanian forests is slightly affected (percentage of tress damaged was situated between 14 and 17). Generally, conifers are slightly more affected than broadleaves except 2010 and 2015 (Figure 5).
Figure 5. The dynamics of the health (Def≤25) and damaged (Def>25) trees percentage during the 2010-2015 period (level I plots – 16×16 km)
The National Forest Inventory (NFI) is the main instrument to assess country’s forest resources, and it has to answer to the ever-increasing needs of information on forest. The main task of NFI consists of collecting, storing, managing an analyzing data and information regarding forest resources, as well as of publishing the study outcomes.
In addition, NFI conducts studies and prognoses on the evolution of forest resources and forestry sector development, aiming at contributing to elaborating national forest policy and cross-sectorial cooperation.
NFI is the main data provider for reporting on indicators for sustainable forest management, according to the Romanian commitments within the framework of the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forest in Europe (MCPFE). It also provides essential data on forest resources assessment regularly reporting to FAO, UN-Framework Convention on Climate Change/Kyoto Protocol (UNFCCC/KP) and to Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).
The activity of NFI is very complex, consisting of data collecting from the field, GIS analyses and digital photogrammetry, laboratory analyses and processing, and statistical analyses of large amount of data.
 Collaborative Forest Resources Questionnaire (CFRQ), 2005